Another example of loyalty being achieved through torture can be seen when the emaciated man volunteers to confess criminal knowledge. For example, in 1984, when he is summoned to Room 101, the emaciated man exclaims “‘You don’t have to take me to that place!... There’s nothing I wouldn’t confess, nothing!’” (Orwell 236). In this quote, it shows that when he is threatened with torture, the emaciated man gives up information in an attempt to avoid pain. His fear of being subject to pain is the driving force behind his devotion to the Party. This is significant because humans are completely opposed to pain so when faced with torture, an individual loses control of who they are. This symbolizes how as a society, people are never truly individuals and can be influenced as a whole. This makes it easy for the government to instill a fierce loyalty among its people through a fear of torture. Similarly, this can be compared to Winston’s new found loyalty to the Party after being tortured.
Another reason that the proles need to be oppressed is shown through the fact that they are not educated enough to understand government affairs. For example, when Winston is writing in his journal, he thinks that "if only [the proles] could somehow become conscious of their own strength", they could rebel against the government (Orwell 69). In this quote, the use of the word conscious, meaning to have knowledge of something, shows how uninformed the people's are. This is significant because society functions more efficiently when the people in charge do not need to explain their decisions and policies to the uninformed proletariat. That is time which could be spent working on the next idea to improve society. The average person is not smart enough to understand the complexities of government and is better off just being told what to do.
Another instance where panopticism improves the lives of citizens in 1984 is seen when the Party suppresses sexual desire. For example, Orwell writes that "The aim of the Party was not merely to prevent men and women from forming loyalties which it might not be able to control. Its real, undeclared purpose was to remove all pleasure from the sexual act. [...] The only recognized purpose of marriage was to beget children for the service of the Party" (Orwell 65). In this quote, it is demonstrated that the Party's true intent is to remove pleasure from sexual intercourse, as the main purpose should be reproduction. If citizens were to gain pleasure from sexual behaviour, then they would in turn be prevented from completing their responsibilities required by the Party. This is significant because it is common for humans to become addicted to sexual activity and promiscuity, which ultimately leads to the neglect of everyday duties. In relation to 1984, the result may be Oceania becoming weak and potentially losing the war. Furthermore, pleasureless sex prevents citizens from forming strong bonds amongst couples, which reinforces their devotion towards Big Brother instead. Therefore, the suppression of sexual pleasure is essential to the betterment of the People.
Another way that the Party demonstrates that they care about the society’s well being is seen when the Party suppresses sexual desires. For example, in 1984, it states that “the aim of the Party was not merely to prevent men and women from forming loyalties which it might not be able to control” (Orwell 65). In this quote it demonstrates that the Party shows concern because they are allowing the people of Oceania to focus more on the Party, rather than towards their partners. This is significant because sexual desires causes society to become distracted and diverge away from their responsibilities. Therefore, the Party shows interest in Oceania by suppresses sexual desires.
Another example that shows the reasoning for the Party’s over protectiveness is care, is the Big Brother propaganda posters. For example, in 1984, when Winston looked out the window of his room he found posters plastered everywhere, describing them saying, “The black-mustachio’d face gazed down from every commanding corner. There was one on the house front immediately opposite. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption said” (Orwell 2). This quote shows that the posters are there to remind the people of Oceania that they are always being watched. Big brother feels the need to watch over his people in order to protect them from themselves. In most cases in today's society, you can see that parents or older siblings are vigilant with the ones they love and care about. Parents watch over their children to make sure they do not do anything reckless or absurd that will later harm them or others around them. This is significant because it is crucial for a government to provide guidance, and in order to guide someone you first must know what they are doing. Therefore the Big Brother Propaganda is an expression to the people of Oceania that Big Brother is someone who cares and watches over them at all times, similar to acts of a caring older brother.
Another reason that the government uses alternative facts to benefit society by giving them a sense of security is shown through the changing of public speeches to predict the future helps the citizens think they are safe. For example, in the book it is stated that “ ...it appeared from ‘The Times’ of the seventeenth of March that Big Brother, in his speech of the previous day, had predicted that the South Indian front would remain quiet but that a Eurasian offensive would shortly be 50 1984 launched in North Africa. As it happened, the Eurasian Higher Command had launched its offensive in South India and left North Africa alone. It was therefore necessary to rewrite a paragraph of Big Brother’s speech, in such a way as to make him predict the thing that had actually happened.” (Orwell ). This quote demonstrates how the government gave the public a sense of security by changing speeches to simulate Big brother’s omniscient presence, giving people the impression that their leader is capable of prediction the actions of their enemies. In today’s society, the populace is very paranoid about an outside attack on their homes. After the September eleven attacks on the Twin Towers, the government of the United States tried hard to show the public that security measures have improved and that this type of attack will never be allowed to happen giving the public a sense of security and peace of mind. The paranoid society of today is caused by an enemy and causes the people to resort to the government for support and protection which in turn can lead to an uneasy and unproductive population. This further supports the first argument that the government is creating alternative facts in order to keep society sane in the ministry of truth by demonstrating how the government uses alternative facts to give the public a sense of security which keeps the public at ease and benefits society.
Another example of the Party manipulating society to gain their loyalty is the use of Big Brother propaganda. For example, in the novel it states “It was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you about when you move. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption beneath it ran” (Orwell 1). This demonstrates the Party manipulating society to gain their loyalty because they create a relationship with them through the propaganda. The Party uses a brotherly figure to symbolize that the Party is an honourable group that the people can rely on. This is significant because in society, an older brother is always looked up to by their sibling. Older siblings care for their younger siblings by watching over them, resulting in younger siblings to remain loyal to them. This is also shown in government propaganda when they form a close connection with society in order to gain their trust. The Party’s manipulation of the people by promoting Big Brother allows people to trust them.
Another example of why the upper class requires a lower class to thrive is shown by the size of the proles. As a population, the proles are the biggest group of people in Oceania and are the ones who have the power in society as a whole. For example, in 1984 Winston states that “the proles, if only they could somehow become conscious of their own strength, would have no need to conspire” (Orwell 69). This relates to the parties dependence on the proles because of their size and contribution of work force. As Winston said, if they were intelligent enough they could fight back against the party. This is significant because it represents many modern day social structures of the working class. Human's natural instinct is in search for power according to Hobbes. In this case the party is using instrumental power by manipulating the proles to benefit the upper class and convincing them that they have no need to revolt or protest.
Another example of the Party not being capable of controlling its citizens can be seen through Winston writing rebellious thoughts in his diary. This is evident when Orwell states how “[Winston’s] pen had slid voluptuously over the smooth paper, printing in large neat capitals— DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER” (Orwell 18). In this quote, Winston is demonstrating his innermost feelings toward the Party and its leader, which is considered the ultimate act of defiance, referred to as thoughtcrime. This is significant because if individuals in society refuse to conform to the laws and regulations set forth by the governing body, the predetermined social order is disrupted. Nonconformity results in the letter of the law and the integrity of the governing body being called into question. This is similar to Goldstein betraying the government to join the Revolution and creating The Brotherhood, which is against the Party’s wishes. Winston’s refusal to obey the Party’s ideology leads to others within society causing paralleled disruption to order, and reveals the Party’s inadequate authority over its people.
Another way that disenfranchising is seen positively in the novel is when the party divides all of the chocolate rations evenly among it’s citizens. Winston begins to explain, “A short time ago as February, the ministry of plenty has issued a promise that there would be no reduction of the chocolate ration in 1984.” (Orwell 34) This quote proves that the party divides the chocolate rations evenly between its citizens and does not give them the privilege to obtain any more. This is significant because without the disenfranchising of people seen in this quote, not everyone would receive the same amount of chocolate. Just like in society, not everyone receives the same amount of money for their jobs and thus creates different classes. Disenfranchising people and creating an equal distribution of resources creates a positive outcome.
Another demonstration of Winston’s rebellion against the Party that leads to his inevitable demise can be seen when he engages in a sexual affair with Julia. For example, in 1984 Winston Smith reflects back to what Julia had said, “ ‘They can’t get inside you,’ … But they could get inside you” (Orwell 290). In this quote Winston reflects back on the rebellion he committed against the party, his affair with Julia, specifically about how foolish they were to think that the Party could not get inside of their heads, but in the end the Party can, in fact, get inside his head, and they destroy everything that makes Winston who he is. Winston’s rebellion leads to his demise. This is significant because it shows how people use their ego to control their id, but no matter how hard a person's ego is they cannot defy their id. It reveals that people’s human instinct, their will to live, is stronger than the will to do the right thing or follow any other social construct. In the end, people are slaves to their id, and in thinking that the ego can overpower it will lead make people despondent and lead to their downfall. In his rebellion with Julia and his indulgence in thoughtcrimes, Winston believes that his ego can overpower his id, but in truth, he is a slave to his id, and together this leads to his downfall.
Another reason why using revisionist history with the purpose of deceiving the proles has a positive outcome is because without them knowing the benefits behind rebelling, they will never have a reason to. For example, in the novel 1984, it states that "Until they became conscious they will never rebel, and until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious" (Orwell 96). In this quote, it explains that the proles will never be conscious nor rebel because they need to have one to do the other, and they have neither. This is significant because revising history limits the knowledge behind what society can think is positive or negative. When people in power do this, it allows them to control the society as a whole and keeps society unconscious so they do not rebel against what is true. Revisionist history allows people in power to manage the way they want to, without anyone having a reason to go against it.