Psychoanalytic criticism examines how the human mind works. This criticism applies the principles, theories and practices of psychoanalysis to literature. This theory came from Sigmund Freud, who also believed that humans have unconscious thoughts and feelings that influence their actions. This criticism is seen many times in Macbeth by Shakespeare. For example, Lady Macbeth exhibits repressed emotions because she gradually loses her sanity throughout the play after committing a murder, which in the beginning he seemed at peace with. Lady Macbeth tries to repress the memories of the murder but she cannot and these memories haunt her. When analyzing literature I would use this theory because it can give insight on the characters actions and motivations.
Psychoanalytical criticism is a way of interpreting books by analyzing the thoughts, actions and words of the characters by psychological theories developed by Sigmund Freud and his disciples. They pose questions of “why” and “how” a character may act as well as the role of their unconscious. This is based on many Freudian concepts including: actions are influenced by the unconscious, humans must repress many desires, and such desires often resurface because of the unconscious. This concept also calls on the theory of the id, ego and superego to analyze literature. The play A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams is about a girl named Blanche who is living with her sister Stella. Blanche has many repressed sexual desires from her youth and adolescence that affects her current mental state. She also is extremely affected by her childhood, and the loss of her family estate. The character Blanche -as well as many others in the novel- can be easily psychoanalyzed. This is an effective style of criticism because one can get an in depth understanding behind the reasons of a character’s actions. Psychoanalytical criticism is a useful approach as it may be applied to all works of literature because all characters have motifs behind their actions that may be analyzed.
Based on the work of Sigmund Freud, the psychoanalytical approach is intended mainly to gain perspective into why a character acts the way they do. One of Freud’s basic concepts is that in order to live in harmony with other people, one must suppress many of their thoughts. This evident in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, when Tom is sold to the wicked slave trader, Haley. On the boat, Tom remains very trustworthy and respectful of Haley to the point where is given the privilege of exploring the boat. This allows him to develop a connection with a young girl named Evangeline, whose father buys him into their kind home. Had Tom not suppressed his inner thoughts, he may not have been bought into as kind a home as that of Evangeline’s father. I could certainly use this approach in analyzing literature, as it forces one to think about one’s motives for their actions, thus gaining insight into the character’s personality.
Psychoanalytic criticism is a literary criticism method in which one gains perspective into why characters act the way the do. This theory is based off the work of Sigmund Freud and his disciples. One of Freud’s many methods is that repressed desires often surface in the unconscious motivating actions. For example in the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde, Dorian becomes obsessed with himself and looking youthful and good looking. He began to act this way because he realized it was the only thing he had going for him. The repressed memories his parents deaths during his childhood had made him feel as if his good looks were the only thing that he always had. The painting of Dorian started to take the consequences of Dorians now evil lifestyle and with this in mind he broke off a serious relationship and killed one of his best friends all for vanity. If Dorian’s parents had not died when he was a young child he may have been able to open up to more people, and realize that good looks are not worth ruining relationships. This is a good approach when analyzing literature because you get to see the reasoning behind why the characters act a certain way, which can answer some questions that you may confused about.
Psychoanalytical Literary criticism focuses on the examination of the characters’ subdued unconscious thoughts. Actions, comments and other decisions made by the characters are carefully noted, to attempt to reveal what lies in their unconscious minds. Sigmund Freud’s concepts are the foundation of this method. It was he who came up with the idea of Id, the Superego and the Ego. Using these concepts within The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, interesting conclusions can be made. Nick Carraway, the narrator of the story describes men in extreme detail, lingering on the description of his neighbour’s muscular body. Nick also chooses to date women with masculinity, such as a defiant personality, muscular physique and short hair. By doing so, Nick suppresses homosexual feelings, bordering up in his subconscious and seeping through very subtly into his actions. This type of criticism is often useful, however it seems less important to consider compared to other approaches such as New Historicism or Mythological criticism.
The psychoanalytical approach analyzes characters within a work of literature in order to gain insight about human nature and the way the mind works. When reading a text critics consider the theories of Sigmund Freud and his contemporaries to delve deep into the human psyche. According to Freud, texts express the hidden unconscious desires of the author and the characters in the novel are just manifestations of these wishes. Therefore, if we understand the character, we understand the author and in turn acquire a better understanding of the human mind. This literary approach can be applied to Tennessee Williams’ play A Streetcar Named Desire, specifically to the character of Stanley. From his actions the reader learns that he essentially acts only on instinct and animalistic desires. For example, he turns violent when he feels threatened and always acts on his sexual urges. Stanley is motivated solely by pleasure and impulse, so any type of internal censor seems nonexistent. This particular approach is effective and should continue to be utilized when analyzing literature because it allows the reader to better understand the actions, motivations and intentions of the characters in the novel, which in turn gives the reader a much better understanding of the novel itself. However, the most tantalizing aspect of this method is its ability to provide more information about the human mind.
The psychoanalytical view put forth by Sigmund Freud can be explored by analyzing the actions, thoughts, and motivations of any character in a novel. It delves into subconscious thoughts held by such character, and how they are influenced by them. This is strongly revealed in the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde, through the character of Dorian Gray. Gray becomes obsessed with youth and vanity, and harbours these emotions within him. Due to this focus, and the fact that he has lost his soul to a portrait, he changes everything about himself. Dorian pushes away all those he used to care for, and loses sight of what used to hold great importance. He has one focus in his mind that drives all of his actions. In order to fully understand a character, you must know his motivations and his inner thoughts - otherwise, you only see the surface of their personality. This technique allows you to understand this side of the characters.
Psychoanalytical approach is an approach that tries to reveal insight about how the human mind works through literature; it is used to analyze the character’s actions and motives. Freud came up with the basis for this theory, and Freud says that humans must repress their natural inclinations in order to live peacefully within society. These repressed inclinations resurface through character’s actions and motives. In The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Jay Gatsby has a desire to be with Daisy Buchanan after losing her to another richer man. Gatsby became obsessed with gaining money and social status to try and gain Daisy back. The Id in Jay Gatsby‘s mind wanted gratification, the only way Jay Gatsby would be able to achieve this would to prove to everyone that he was not worthless. His Superego would pressure him into not giving into these feelings of worthlessness, and so Jay Gatsby had to become the richest in society and have the best wife and house. Overall, Jay Gatsby needed to prove that he was the best in life to stop himself from feeling worthless. His ego was too big to stop his superego from coming out in his character; he began a life of crime and lies to become the very best. Using this theory can give the reader insight onto why Jay Gatsby wanted Daisy Buchanan so badly, and can also give insight into any character. This is an effective theory because it analyzes the personality of the character so deeply to understand the character’s motives, and at the same time could introduce other traits the character has.
The Psychoanalytical approach focuses on examining the psyche and emotions of characters within literature. The method is based on the work of Sigmeund Freud. Freud believed that humans have desires rooted within our subconcious that we must control through our reason. In William Shakespear's play, Romeo and Juliet, the love between the Romeo and Juliet would be analyzed through a pyschoanalytic approach. It would be examined that both Romeo and Juliet did not act reasonable, and let their emotions for eachother lead to foolish actions. This method of analyzing literature is popularily used and is very effective. When reading books i find that i subconsciously always criticize the characters of those within the book.
Psychoanalytic Criticism analyzes literature to attempt to understand the way the human mind works. Its goal is to uncover the motivations for which a character behaves. This theory is based upon the work of Sigmund Freud and his emphasis on the unconscious. He believed that all actions were influenced by the unconscious, and many unconscious desires must be repressed in order to live peacefully with others. He organized the mind into three parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the largest ruling part of the mind, and exists in the unconscious. It is governed by the pleasure principle and instinct. The ego is the smallest ruling part of the mind, and exists in the conscious. It is what is revealed to others and is governed by the reality principle and reason. The superego is the conscience acting between the two. It dictates what parts of the id can be shown in the ego, and what parts should be repressed. Psychoanalytic devices are used to relate a character to the reader in greater depth by incorporating archetypal thoughts and feelings. In William Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the unconscious is greatly examined. Porter drunkenly hesitates to answer the door one evening as gatekeeper because of his unconscious fear of evil visitors entering the gates. Lady Macbeth primarily convinces her husband to kill King Duncan so she can taste her innate desire for power. However, her unconscious guilt inevitably drives her mad. Though she appears stoic to the situation while awake, she spends her nights sleepwalking as she screams, “Out damn spot!” This refers to the guilt that weighs upon her as she sees her hands covered in blood. Eventually, it becomes too much, and she kills herself. Macbeth began as a respectable general who fought for justice. However, once he discovers that his fate is to be king, his nature becomes darker and darker as his unconscious desire for power seeps through to his conscious actions. He murders countless people, including his best friend, Banquo. He, like Lady Macbeth, gets filled with such guilt that he hallucinates Banquo’s bloody ghost at a banquet. In each of these characters, their rational thought becomes marred through their unconscious desires and fears. I would use Psychoanalytic Criticism to analyze literature because it helps the reader to identify and relate to the characters, and gives a greater understanding of motivations and behaviours.
Psychoanalytical approach was founded by Sigmeund Freud which focuses on the human mind which examines their thoughts, action, and emotions. This is incorporated in the A street car Named Desire, which used psychoanalytical approach on Blanches character. The author Tennessee Williams which emphasizes this approach by making Blanche self-centered, attention needy, and a little crazy; By making her keep thinking some rich man is coming to pick her up. Blanche has had re-occurring problem since her child hood, know when she is older and mature, she still wants all the attention by dressing up and needing people to say how pretty she is. This is using the psychoanalytical approach to show how how her actions are different. When a character in a book is acting different that the others you know that the author is using this approach on that character.
The Psychoanalytical approach focuses on determining the reasons behind a character’s actions or why an author wrote a piece the way they did. This approach was developed from the theories and work of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s teachings also help to interpret the unconscious reasoning behind a character’s thoughts and activities. Antonio in Shakespeare’s A Merchant of Venice offers to pay the pound of flesh for Bassanio, if Bassanio cannot acquire the money in time to pay his debt. It has been argued that Antonio offers to do this because he has romantic feelings for Bassanio and these feelings urge him to risk his life. This is a useful way of analyzing literature because it begins to give more depth to the characters. With more depth the characters become more real and they are easier to relate to. This form of criticism also helps to determine some of the deeper motives behind the interactions of characters in an author’s work.
Sigmund Freud’s theories have been transferred to the psychoanalysis of literature, entering the human mind and discovering why characters act the way they do. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey is a novel that takes place in a 1960’s mental institution. Using this approach, one may be able determine the motives behind the actions of the characters in this novel, particularly Randle McMurphy, Chief Bromden, and Nurse Ratched. These are the primary characters of Kesey’s novel who also have the most complex personalities. Through the psychoanalytic criticism, the reason behind why these characters act the way they do may be discovered. I would use this approach when analyzing most pieces of literature as a way to understand the meaning behind the way a character acts and the way a character is.
The Psychoanalytical Approach examines the reasons why characters act the way they do. This approach is heavily based upon Sigmund Freud's work in psychology. One of Freud's theories is that people repress desires in order to live peacefully with others. In Dickens' A Tale Of Two Cities, Sydney Carton is a character who denies himself many things; a man who represses many wants. Carton wants to be a lawyer, but works as an assistant because he is good at it, and does not want to leave his comfort zone. He wants to woo Miss Manette, but refuses it for fear he will make her worse, instead of her making him better. He denies his own happiness to ensure his place in society, where most will not disagree with what he is. I would use psychoanalytical analysis to gain additional insight into the characters.
Psychoanalytical criticism analyzes literature to reveal insight about how the human mind works. This approach is based on the concepts of Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that human beings must repress many of their desires in order to live peacefully with others. These repressed desires will often surface in the unconscious, therefore motivating actions. In Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Dr Jeykll’s repressed desires and emotions surface through his alter ego and dark side of his personality, Mr Hyde. Dr Jekyll can no longer live peacefully with others because he has let too many of his repressed desires surface through Mr Hyde. This form of literary criticism is useful because it provides insight into how human beings think and what motivates their actions. This criticism allows others to be able to connect with characters in literary works on a much more personal level. I would use the psychoanalytical approach to gain additional insight into why characters behave the way they do.
Psychoanalytic approach aims at uncovering the working of the human mind, especially the expression of the unconcious. It does this by analyzing literature to reveal insights on how the human mind works. In the book The Lord of the Flies there is a passage where all of the boys on the island kill Simon as a game. This analyzes the inexperience of children and how life may be similar to a game to people. I would use this theory because it allows me to give depth to the characters and analyze how the mind itself works.
Psychoanalytical criticism analyzes a character’s motivations and actions to gain insight on how the human mind works, based on the work of Sigmund Freud and his disciples. Freud believed that all of one’s actions are based on the unconscious; human beings must repress their desires to be peaceful within society, and these repressed desires often surface in one’s subconscious, ultimately motivating their actions. In Tennessee William’s play A Streetcar Named Desire, Blanche Dubois visits her sister Stella in New Orleans for a lengthy period of time. What Blanche did not tell Stella when she arrived was that she kicked out of her old town of Laurel for having an affair with a student at the school she taught at. Blanche keeps her sexual desires repressed while she is visiting with Stella, as well as the fact that her husband committed suicide because she chastised him about his homosexuality. These, as well as many other factors, are the cause of Blanche’s actions and her mental deterioration throughout the play. Psychoanalytical criticism proves to be an effective approach as it helps the reader to gain insight into what the character is thinking and why they act the way they do.
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